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ⓘ Jîn-thé - Kûn-thé, Jîn-lūi-ha̍k, Y jiám-sek-thé, Jîn-bîn, Vilnius Koān Chū-tī-thé, Molėtai Koān Chū-tī-thé, Panevėžys Koān Chū-tī-thé, Pháiⁿ-thé ..




                                               

Kûn-thé

Kûn-thé, he̍k-chiá kóng kò-thé-kûn, lēng-gōa ia̍h ū chéng-kûn, cho̍k-kûn, chi̍p-thoân téng kong-hoat, sī chi̍t-ê só͘-chāi tī kâng sî-kan lāi ê tan-to̍k bu̍t-chéng só͘-ū ê seng-bu̍t-thé ê chi̍p-thé. Pún khài-liām nā ēng tī lâng ê siā-hoē, to̍h ē-tàng thè-ōaⁿ chò jîn-kháu lâi piáu-sī. Wilhelm Johannsen tī 1903 nî tāi-seng the̍h chhut chit-ê kài-liām.

                                               

Jîn-lūi-ha̍k

Jîn-lūi-ha̍k kán-tan lâi kóng tō-sī gián-kiù jîn-lūi ê ha̍k-kho / ha̍k-būn. Kui-ê lâi khòaⁿ ū 2-ê ì-gī tī--leh: Jîn-lūi-ha̍k hām jīm-hô sî-tāi ê jîn-lūi lóng ū koan-hē. Jîn-lūi-ha̍k mā kap jîn-lūi ê ta̍k-hong-bīn ū koan-hē. Chiàu thôan-thóng ê kóng-hoat, jîn-lūi-ha̍k kap kî-thaⁿ jîn-bûn ha̍k-kho chú-iàu bô-kāng-khóan ê te̍k-sek sī i kiông-tiāu koh-iūⁿ bûn-hoà chi-kan ê pí-kàu. M̄-koh in-ūi hiān-chhú-sî jîn-lūi-ha̍k ê gián-kiù hong-hoat tōa-hūn sī ēng tī 1-ê 1-ê siā-hōe / thôan-thé gián-kiù téng-kôan, thâu-chêng kóng--ê hit-ê cheng-chha ê só -chāi í-keng ū lú lâi lú chē lâng teh thó-lūn, mā ...

                                               

Y jiám-sek-thé

Y jiám-sek-thé sī pau-koat jîn-lūi chāi-lāi chhī-leng-lūi téng tōng-bu̍t sin-ku téng nn̄g khoán sèng-jiám-sek-thé ê kî-tiong chi̍t khoán. I-ê chûn-chāi he̍k-chiá bô-chûn-chāi koat-tēng liáu tōng-bu̍t sī kang--ê ia̍h sī bó--ê.

                                               

Jîn-bîn

Jîn-bîn, chiàu tiûⁿ-ha̍p ū-sî kóng lâng ia̍h bîn-cho̍k, sī tāi-piáu lâng ê kûn-thé, chhin-chhiūⁿ bîn-cho̍k kah cho̍k-kûn. Phì-jū kóng bú-gí sī Bân-lâm-gí ê kûn-thé chiū hō-chòe Hô-ló 河老; tī Tâi-oân chhut-sì ê kûn-thé chiū hō-chòe Tâi-oân-lâng 台灣人.

                                               

Vilnius Koān Chū-tī-thé

Vilnius Koān Chū-tī-thé sī Lietuva Kiōng-hô-kok Vilnius Kūn ê chi̍t ê koān chū-tī-thé. Chit-ê chū-tī-thé chóng-kiōng 2.129 pêng-hong kong-lí, ē-té ū 23 ê tiúⁿ-ló-khu; tī 2020 nî ê sî-chūn ū 105.122 ê lâng tòa.

                                               

Molėtai Koān Chū-tī-thé

Molėtai Koān Chū-tī-thé sī Lietuva Kiōng-hô-kok Utena Kūn ê chi̍t ê koān chū-tī-thé. Chit-ê chū-tī-thé chóng-kiōng 1.368 pêng-hong kong-lí, ē-té ū 11 ê tiúⁿ-ló-khu; tī 2017 nî ê sî-chūn ū 18.444 ê lâng tòa.

                                               

Panevėžys Koān Chū-tī-thé

Panevėžys Koān Chū-tī-thé sī Lietuva Kiōng-hô-kok Panevėžys Kūn ê chi̍t ê koān chū-tī-thé. Chit-ê chū-tī-thé chóng-kiōng 2.179 pêng-hong kong-lí, ē-té ū 11 ê tiúⁿ-ló-khu; tī 2001 nî ê sî-chūn ū 42.900 ê lâng tòa.

Thé-goā jîn-kang siū-cheng
                                               

Thé-goā jîn-kang siū-cheng

Thé-goā jîn-kang siū-cheng sī kā cheng-chú kap loán-chú the̍h chhut-lâi, tī jîn-kang ê chhiau-chok hā chìn-hêng thé-goā siū-cheng, jiân-āu pôe-ióng chò phoe-thai, chiah koh kā phoe-thai khǹg tńg-khì chhu-sèng seng-bu̍t-thé ê thé-lāi. Che kui-ê kòe-têng chin-chiàⁿ tī chhì-giām-kńg lāi ê sî-kan kan-nā 2 kàu 6 kang.

Pháiⁿ-thé
                                               

Pháiⁿ-thé

Pháiⁿ-thé ì-sù sī pháiⁿ-ì ê nńg-thé, kí 1 khoán siat-kè lâi chhim-ji̍p ia̍h phò-hāi lâng ê tiān-náu hē-thóng ê nńg-thé, pau-hâm tiān-náu pēⁿ-to̍k, tiān-náu u-óng, chhâ-bé thêng-sek, kàn-tia̍p nńg-thé, kóng-kò nńg-thé, téng-téng. Tiān-náu choan-gia̍p jîn-sū ēng chit sû piáu-sī kok-chióng pháiⁿ-sim, thó-ià, he̍k-chiá sī ē chhim-hoān ê nńg-thé ia̍h thêng-sek-má. Tāi-chiòng mûi-thé kap it-poaⁿ iōng-chiá chhiâng-chāi kā só͘-ū ê pháiⁿ-thé lóng hō chò "pēⁿ-to̍k". Pháiⁿ-thé m̄ sī kò͘-chiòng ê nńg-thé.